Dead Connection Detection (DCD) Explained


Dead Connection Detection (DCD) is a feature of SQL*Net 2.1 and later, includingOracle Net8 and Oracle NET. DCD detects when a partner in a SQL*Net V2 client/serveror server/server connection has terminated unexpectedly, and flags the dead sessionso PMON can release the resources associated with it. DCD is intended primarily for environments in which clients power down their
systems without disconnecting from their Oracle sessions, a problemcharacteristic of networks with PC clients.

DCD is initiated on the server when a connection is established. At this time SQL*Net reads the SQL*Net parameter files and sets a timer to generate an alarm. The timer interval is set by providing a non-zero value in minutes for the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter in the sqlnet.ora file.

When the timer expires, SQL*Net on the server sends a "probe" packet to the client. (In the case of a database link, the destination of the linkconstitutes the server side of the connection.) The probe is essentially an empty SQL*Net packet and does not represent any form of SQL*Net level data,

but it creates data traffic on the underlying protocol. If the client end of the connection is still active, the probe is discarded, and the timer mechanism is reset. If the client has terminated abnormally,

the server will receive an error from the send call issued for the probe, and SQL*Net on the server will signal the operating system to release the connection's resources.

On Unix servers, the sqlnet.ora file must be in either $TNS_ADMIN  or  $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin. Neither /etc nor /var/opt/oracle alone is valid. It should be also be noted that in SQL*Net 2.1.x, an active orphan process (one processing a query, for example) will not be killed until the query completes. In SQL*Net 2.2, orphaned resources will be released regardless of activity. This is a server feature only. The client may be running any supported SQL *Net V2 release. 


While Dead Connection Detection is set at the SQL*Net level, it relies heavilyon the underlying protocol stack for it's successful execution. For example,you might set SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME=1 in the sqlnet.ora file, but it is unlikelythat an orphaned server process will be cleaned up immediately upon expirationof that interval.

TCP/IP, for example, is a connection-oriented protocol, and as such, the protocol will implement some level of packet timeout and retransmission in an effort to guarantee the safe and sequenced order of data packets. If a timely acknowledgement is not received in response to the probe packet, the TCP/IP stack will retransmit the packet some number of times before timing out. AfterTCP/IP gives up, then SQL*Net receives notification that the probe failed. The time that it takes TCP/IP to timeout is dependent on the TCP/IP stack, andtimeouts of many minutes are entirely common. This has been an area of concernfor many customers, as many retransmissions at the protocol layer causes whatcould be a significant lag between the expiration of the DCD interval and thetime when the orphaned process is actually killed. The easiest way to determine if the protocol stack is causing such a delay involves testing different DCD intervals.


Set the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter to 1 minute and note the time required toclean up an orphaned server process. Then set SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME to 5 minutesand again observe the time required to clean up the shadow. If the TCP/IPtimeout is the reason the server resources do not get released, the time toclean up the shadow should increase by about 4 minutes. If the TCP/IP retransmission timeout is indeed the problem, the Operating System kernel can be tuned to reduce the interval for and number of packet retransmissions (on many Unix platforms, the file

/usr/include/netinet/tcp_timer.h contains the configuration parameters). Reducing the interval and number of retransmissions may impact other system components, since in effect you are shrinking the window allowed forconnections to process data, possibly resulting in inadvertent loss of connections during periods of heavy system load. Slower connections fromremote sites may be impacted by this change. Kernel parameters that may affect retransmission include but are not limited to TCP_TTL, TCPTV_PERSMIN, TCPTV_MAX, and TCP_LINGERTIME.

*** To avoid disrupting other system processes, it is important to contact the appropriate vendor for assistance in tuning the operating system kernel or protocol stack. ***


The best way to determine if DCD is enabled and functioning properly is to generate a server trace and search the file for the DCD probe packet. To generate a server trace, set TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER=16 and TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER=<path> in sqlnet.ora on the server (note the locationof the sqlnet.ora file). The resulting trace file will have a filename of svr_<PID>.trc and will be located in the specified directory.

Is DCD Enabled?

For pre-Oracle8i versions, enable level 16 SQL*Net server tracing and searchthe resultant server trace file for an entry like the following:

osntns: Enabling dead connection detection (1 min)  The timer interval listed should match the value of SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME. For Oracle8i onwards, you should see the following:
nstimini: entry
nstimig: entry
nstimig: normal exit
nstimini: initializing
NLTM in asynchronous mode
nstimini: normal exit nstimstart: entry

Is DCD Working?

Search the server trace file for DCD probe packets. They will appear in theform of empty data packets, as follows:

nstimexp: entry
nstimexp: timer expired at 05-OCT-95 12:15:05

nsdo: entry

nsdo: cid=0, opcode=67, *bl=0, *what=1, uflgs=0x2, cflgs=0x3

nsdo: nsctx: state=8, flg=0x621c, mvd=0

nsdo: gtn=93, gtc=93, ptn=10, ptc=2048

nsdoacts: entry

nsdofls: entry

nsdofls: DATA flags: 0x0

nsdofls: sending NSPTDA packet

nspsend: entry
nspsend: plen=10, type=6
nttwr: entry
nttwr: socket 4 had bytes written=10
nttwr: exit
nspsend: 10 bytes to transport
nspsend:packet dump
nspsend:00 0A 00 00 06 00 00 00 |........|
nspsend:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |........|
nspsend: normal exit
nsdofls: exit (0)
nsdoacts: flushing transport
nttctl: entry
nsdoacts: normal exit
nsdo: normal exit
nstimexp: normal exit

The entry:

nspsend:00 0A 00 00 06 00 00 00 |........|

nspsend:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |........|

represents the probe packet. Note that DCD packets are 10 bytes long when theyare issued to the protocol stack. Once the protocol header and trailer bytesfor the underlying protocols have been added, the packet could be approximately70 bytes long. If DCD is enabled, you will see these probe packets written to the trace filewhen the timer expires. If the server is a UNIX system, it might be useful toestablish a connection and tail the trace file:

tail -f svr_<PID>.trc

The time elapsed after each probe packet is written to the server trace should

match the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME value.

Note: from version onwards, DCD probe packets are no longer traced inSQL*Net trace files, however DCD packets can be observed using other forms oftracing, such as network sniffer tracing.


Of the few reported problems, perhaps the most significant is DCD's poor performance on Windows NT. Dead connections are cleaned up only when the server is rebooted and the database is restarted. Exactly how well DCD works on NT depends on the client's protocol implementation. SQL*Net v2.3 has improved the performance over earlier releases. This has been logged as port-specific Bug#303578.
  1. On SCO Unix, a problem was reported in which server processes spin, consuminglarge amounts of CPU, once the DCD timer expires. The problem is due to impropersignal handling and can be eliminated by disabling DCD. This is port-specific Bug#293264
  2. Orphaned resources are not released if only the client application is terminated. Only after the client PC has been rebooted does DCD release these resources. For example, if a Windows application is killed yet Windows remainsrunning, the probe packet may be received and discarded as if the connection isstill active. As it currently stands, it appears that DCD detects dead clientmachines, but not dead client processes. This is logged as generic Bug#280848.
  3. The SQL*Net V2 implementation on MVS does not use the generic DCD mechanism,and therefore the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter does not apply. The KEEPALIVEfunction of IBM's TCP/IP is used instead. This was implemented prior todevelopment of DCD. This is documented in port-specific Bug#301318.
  4. DCD relies heavily on issuing probe packets during any phase of the connection.This is not be possible with some protocols which run half-duplex. Hence, DCD isnot enabled on protocols like APPC/LU6.2. This is not a bug, but is rather the intended design.
  5. Local connections using BEQ protocol adapters are not supported with DCD. Local connections using the IPC protocol adapters are supported with DCD. BUG#1388806 : On Windows NT, DCD FAILS AFTER 16 CONNECTIONS


On most OS'es (even more recent versions of Windows) if a process exits abnormally or is killed by an administrator, the OS will still gracefully clean up resources associated with that process including the networkconnection(s). It will tell the server on the other end that it is closing the network connection. DCD is still useful for times when there are problems with the physical network (e.g. ethernet cable falls off the machine) or ifthe OS kernel panics and crashes (e.g. blue screen of death) before it canclose the network connections. It may have another side benefit with certainload balancing hardware, that may prematurely abort connections it thinks havebeen idle too long, by sending a dummy packet to the client periodically. Under no circumstances should you rely 100% on Dead Connection Detection.

It was developed to handle clients that have abnormally exited. Clients shouldalways exit their applications gracefully. It is the responsibility of theapplication developer to make this possible. DCD is intended only to clean upafter abnormal events. DCD is much more resource-intensive than similar mechanisms at the protocol level, so if you depend on DCD to clean up all dead processes, that will put an undue load on the server.

Clearly it is advantageous to exit applications cleanly in the first place.